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Res Dev Med Educ. 2022;11(1): 3.
doi: 10.34172/rdme.2022.003
  Abstract View: 86
  PDF Download: 72

Original Research

Comparing the efficacy of problem-based learning vs. lectures on the academic achievement and educational motivation of nursing students: A 3-year quasi-experimental study

Mahdieh Arian 1,2 ORCID logo, Azadeh Kamali 3 ORCID logo, Mohammad Bagher Oghazian 4* ORCID logo

1 Department of Medical-Surgical Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
2 Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran
3 Department of Nursing, School of Nursing and Midwifery, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran
4 Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran

Abstract

Background: The expansion of roles and the professionalization of nursing obligates instructors to use novel teaching methods, especially problem-based learning (PBL), which provides students with clinical problem-solving skills and promotes lifelong learning.

Methods: In a quasi-experimental study, the effects of two teaching methods (traditional lectures and PBL) on academic achievement and educational motivation of nursing students were compared. The study participants consisted of four different classes across four academic semesters of students who had taken a “Respiratory System Diseases and Disorders” theoretical course. The Solomon four-group test was used to remove the sensitizing effect of the pre-test and avoid compromising the external validity of the research. Two classes used the PBL method and two classes used the lecture method. An academic achievement test and the Inventory of School Motivation (ISM) were used to compare the pre-and post-test results.

Results: The pre-test indicated the same random effect on all the participants (P>0.05). Both control groups were treated as one general control group (n=52) and both experimental groups were treated as one general experimental group (n=56). The difference between the post-test mean scores of academic achievement and educational motivation was not significant between the two PBL groups (P>0.05) nor the two lecture groups (P>0.05). The PBL and lecture groups differed in their mean post-test scores of academic achievement and educational motivation (P < 0.05), wherein the PBL group showed higher scores than the control group.

Conclusion: In traditional learning methods, students gain required knowledge for problem-solving before encountering problems. In PBL, however, knowledge is acquired by actually working on problems. The advantages of PBL include gaining basic knowledge for clinical use, developing effective care, developing personal learning skills, and increasing the desire to learn.

Keywords: Academic achievement, Nursing education, Problem-based learning, Teaching
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Submitted: 18 Oct 2021
Revision: 18 Jan 2022
Accepted: 18 Jan 2022
ePublished: 28 Feb 2022
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